The upper chamber of Russia’s parliament has unanimously approved a bill banning Americans from adopting Russian children.
The law is widely seen as a tit-for-tat response to new US legislation meant to hold the Kremlin to account for alleged human rights abuses.
Ahead of its approval, several protesters were detained outside the Moscow parliament building.
Demonstrators complain the bill will deprive children of an opportunity to escape from the often dismal conditions in local orphanages.
It will also prevent some US-funded NGOs from operating in the country and place restrictions on Americans accused of violating the rights of Russian citizens.
The new bill comes after Washington passed the Magnitsky Act, named after Russian lawyer Sergei Magnitsky who died in a Moscow jail.
He was investigating widespread corruption within the Kremlin when he was arrested.