British Prime Minister Boris Johnson on Monday imposed a tiered system of further restrictions on parts of England including shutting pubs as the COVID-19 outbreak accelerates, though anger is rising at the cost of the curtailment of freedoms.
The lockdowns will include shutting pubs and bars in areas placed into the "very high" alert level from Wednesday. The other levels in the new system are "medium" and "high".
So far, Merseyside in northwest England is the only area in the highest risk category. Gyms, leisure centres, betting shops, adult gaming centres and casinos there will also close, Johnson said.
"We must act to save lives," Johnson told parliament, adding that he did not want another national lockdown and that he understood the frustrations of those chaffing at the "repressions of liberty".
"If we let the virus rip, then the bleak mathematics dictate that we would suffer not only an intolerable death toll from COVID, but we would put such a huge strain on our NHS with an uncontrolled second spike that our doctors and nurses would simply be unable to devote themselves to other treatments."
Health officials say the freshest data showed infections were rising across the north of England and in some more southerly areas too, while the virus was creeping up age bands towards the elderly from those aged 16-29 years.
Manchester intensive care consultant Jane Eddleston said 30% of critical care beds were taken up with COVID-19 patients and this was starting to affect healthcare for others.
"This is not how we want to live our lives but this is the narrow path we have to tread between the social and economic trauma of a full lockdown and massive human and indeed economic cost of an uncontained epidemic," Johnson said.
"The weeks and months ahead will continue to be difficult and will test the mettle of this country," he said.
But as millions of people across the United Kingdom grapple with restrictions, the hospitality sector says it is being brought to its knees by the government.
Some pub owners are contemplating legal action over the move to close pubs, saying Johnson had not produced the evidence to explain why they were being targeted.