Spears, 40, shared her outrage about snippets released from the soon to be aired chat, in which Jayden said “it will take a lot of time and effort" to repair his relationship with his mother and appealed to her to look after her mental health.
The teenager, who admitted that he and his brother, Sean Preston, 16, skipped their mother's June wedding to Sam Asghari, a personal trainer and actor, because Spears didn't invite the rest of the family,
He also defended his grandfather Jamie Spears, who was the star’s conservator for 13 years.
“[My grandfather] doesn’t deserve all the hatred he is getting in the media. I love him, with all my heart,” he said. “He was just trying to be a father.”
The pop star shot back with a lengthy message on Instagram in which she said: “If you can honestly sit back and say with your sensible brilliant mind what memaw and paw paw did to me was fine and call them not bad people… then yes I have failed as a mother...
“As for my mental health… my dear child understand you must learn to pick up a book and read one before you start to even thinking about my intellect sweetheart!!!!"
However, it was Federline whom she saved her sharpest words for, accusing him of “smoking pot every day" and being a “hypocrite" who “hasn't had a job in 15 years”.
She added: “It’s horrible to see your dad be a hypocrite and say the media is horrible yet he has you talking about personal matters to them!!!"
She began her message: “I’ve tried my best at being the best person I can be… to be basically held hostage in homes under nurses and bulls***.
“I hope my kids one day understand my reasoning of my play in water revealing myself as any woman would be held under blankets and supervision under the conservatorship!!!
“Finally at 40 without the restraints of what my family did to me… I say to my son Jayden that I send all the love in the world to you every day for the rest of my life!!!!
“My love for my children has no boundaries and it deeply saddens me to know his outcry of saying I wasn’t up to his expectations of a mother… and maybe one day we can meet face to face and talk about this openly!!!!"
The star's tone shifted as she questioned why her son would side with her family for allowing the conservatorship to drag on for over a decade.
“Maybe dear child YOU can explain to me why our family would do that to anyone!!!! I helped your father who hasn’t had a job in 15 years… "
She then suggested it was her being a firm parent that had made her sons opt to stay with their father, claiming they were less monitored with him.
“I assume it is easier for you guys not to have someone check on you to make sure you’re doing your homework!!!!
“I’m sure the standards of your dad smoking weed every day benefits your daily life at 15 and 16 to partake in a VERY COOL GENERATION!!!"
She continued: “I completely understand your need to live with your father as I had to play the perfect role for 15 years for absolutely nothing.
“I’m so happy I was able to carry 4 tours, judge X Factor and WAAAY more… I did that for you."
Spears urged her younger son to remember where he came from.
“If you could pause for a second remember where you came from,” she wrote.
“I I hope you can look in the mirror and remember… you are my child and always will be. Since Preston didn’t speak, I send my love."
Jayden’s interview comes after Federline claimed that their sons had found it “tough” seeing their mother sharing nude photos online, adding: “I can’t imagine how it feels to be a teenager having to go to high school.”
Last month it was revealed that Spears hadn't seen her sons in months.
Former dancer Federline, whom she divorced in 2006, said the boys wished to avoid the attention surrounding their mother's private life.
Preston and Jayden have spoken out for the first time to documentary filmmaker Daphne Barak.
The interview airs tonight on ITV news.