Civil servants at several government departments will take part in a month of sustained industrial action from mid-December.
Members of the PCS union who work for the Home Office, Border Force, Department for Transport and Defra are seeking better pay and conditions.
Ports, borders, and all areas of transport, including driving licences, will be affected, as some workers take action for the entire month while others will walk out for shorter periods.
PCS general secretary Mark Serwotka said the exact details of the action will be announced nearer the time to give the government as little notice as possible.
He said ministers should be dealing with the causes of the dispute rather than making contingency plans.
He added: "PCS members are angry.
"They helped to keep this country running during the pandemic, and in return, have been treated appallingly by this government.
He said: "With inflation now at 11.1%, it is inconceivable that they are expected to cope with yet another real terms pay cut.
"With tens of thousands of members on poverty pay it is no longer about tightening belts, but about choosing between heating and eating - and that is simply not acceptable for the government's own workforce."
The union wants a 10% pay rise, pensions reform, job security and assurances that redundancy terms will not be cut.
Mr Serwotka repeated a suggestion he made last month that co-ordinated action could be taken in the new year by joining with other unions, such as those representing rail workers, university lecturers, firefighters, NHS staff and Royal Mail workers.
He called for Cabinet Office officials to "come back to the table prepared to meet our demands",