Two doses of the AstraZeneca vaccine give an estimated 94% protection against dying with coronavirus in over-65s and 92% for those aged 40 to 64, according to Public Health England (PHE).
It also said two Pfizer jabs meant 98% protection against mortality in both age groups.
It therefore did not provide an estimate of protection offered against the Delta variant, first identified in India and now dominant in the UK.
The data also suggested two AstraZeneca jabs were 94% effective against hospitalisation in people of all ages with the Alpha variant, while a double Pfizer jab had 98% efficacy.
PHE said for under-40s early estimates suggested a single dose of Pfizer's vaccine is 61% effective against symptomatic disease, while a single dose of Moderna's is 72% effective.
Both vaccines were offered to the under-40s from 10 May.
The report also highlighted that the coronavirus vaccination programme had so far prevented an estimated 7.2 million infections and 27,000 deaths in England alone.
This was based on modelling analysis from PHE and Cambridge University's MRC Biostatistics Unit.
Dr Jamie Lopez Bernal, consultant epidemiologist at PHE, said: "This data gives us even more confidence that the vaccines offer high levels of protection against COVID-19 across all age groups.
"Getting two doses of the vaccine is absolutely vital to protect you and others against the variants in circulation in the UK.
"Remember that you must book your second jab when invited, to gain maximum protection.
"The vaccines are very safe and very effective, and they will protect you and those around you from becoming seriously ill."