North-east England has the highest rate, with 346.4 cases per 100,000 people in the seven days to June 27, up week-on-week from 175.3.
This is the highest rate for the region since the week ending January 10.
North-west England has the second highest rate: 325.3, up from 244.3. Meanwhile, eastern England has the lowest rate: 87.8, up from 47.7.
Case rates in England among all age groups are also continuing to rise, PHE said.
The highest rate is among 20 to 29-year-olds, with 424.3 cases per 100,000 people in the seven days to June 27, up week-on-week from 274.0.
This is also the age group to see the biggest week-on-week increase. The second highest rate is among 10 to 19-year-olds, up from 220.7 to 369.4.
For people aged 60 and over, the rate is 27.2, up slightly from 17.6.
The latest data was released as Boris Johnson pledged to reveal details of what the end of lockdown restrictions will look like in the coming days.
The Prime Minister said it is “ever clearer” that vaccines are reducing deaths, despite increasing levels of infections involving the Delta variant of coronavirus.
He said he has increasing confidence he can go ahead with the final phase of his plans to end England’s lockdown on July 19 to “get back to life as close to it was before Covid”.
During a visit to the Nissan plant in Sunderland on Thursday, the Prime Minister told reporters: “I know how impatient people are to get back to total normality, as indeed am I.
“I will be setting in the course of the next few days what Step 4 will look like exactly. But I think I’ve said it before, we’ll be wanting to go back to a world that is as close to the status quo, ante-Covid, as possible. Try to get back to life as close to it was before Covid.
“But there may be some things we have to do, extra precautions that we have to take, but I’ll be setting them out.”