Defender Viktor Vasin handed Russia an early lead in the friendly match in Sochi before Roman Neustadter gave away a penalty with a clumsy challenge on Belgium forward Benteke.
Kevin Mirallas converted the spot-kick, and Benteke followed up the strike with two goals shortly before half-time.
But Russia staged a superb comeback when substitute Bukharov set up Alexei Miranchuk to make it 3-2 in the 76th minute before leveling in the second minute of injury time to end the contest 3-3.
Despite the encouraging comeback, however, next year's World Cup hosts Russia have still only won two of their last 13 games.
Meanwhile, the draw is Belgium's second in the past week after Roberto Martinez's side drew 1-1 at home to Greece in their World Cup qualifier on Saturday evening.