At least 27 people were injured and some needed surgery for fractures after their flight encountered "severe turbulence".
The Boeing 777 flight from Moscow to Bangkok got into difficulty 40 minutes before landing in the Thai capital, according to Russian airline Aeroflot.
Among the injured were 24 Russian nationals and three Thai.
One passenger reported broken noses and babies "covered in bruises", while adding "several people have probably broken their spines".
A video shared online by the passenger shows people lying injured between aisles, with luggage and food spread around the cabin.
After the plane safely landed, 15 Russian passengers were sent to a hospital for treatment, three of whom have had operations.
"All the injured were sent to a local hospital with injuries of a different kind of severity, mainly fractures and bruises," the Russian embassy in Thailand said, without giving further details on the injuries.
"The reasons behind the injures was that some of the passengers had not had their seatbelts fastened."
The airline, which described the turbulence as "severe", said it had not been possible for the crew to warn passengers of the danger because weather conditions were clear.
"Numerous air pockets one hour before landing led to broken bones, internal and external bleeding," wrote Evgenia Zibrova, the passenger who posted the video online.
"Lots of people from the tail cabin have broken their noses, several people have probably broken their spines. Babies are covered in bruises, people lost consciousness," she added.
"Thanks that we are still alive. Aeroflot, please help these people."
Aeroflot operates two flights a day from Moscow to Bangkok.
Thailand is a top destination for Russian tourists, with many visiting the country's beach resorts.