Figures from the worlds of music, the sciences and the arts were among those to receive recognition in the New Year Honours.
Illustrator Quentin Blake, best-known for his work in Roald Dahl's children's books, has been awarded a knighthood.
Artist Tracey Emin, choreographer Arlene Phillips and singer-songwriter Kate Bush have all been given CBEs in the list.
Bush said she is "deeply honoured", while former Strictly Come Dancing judge Phillips said: "I am very pleasantly surprised but mostly absolutely thrilled and delighted to receive such a wonderful honour."
Former Prime Minister Tony Blair's wife, Cherie, is given a CBE in recognition of her service to women's issues and to charity in the UK and overseas.
Actor Ewan McGregor - star of Trainspotting - and fashion designer Stella McCartney both get OBEs.
And Professor Peter Higgs, namesake of the Higgs boson or so-called "God particle" - which was finally proved to exist in July - has been awarded a Companion of Honour 48 years after his discovery.
Metropolitan Police Commissioner Bernard Hogan-Howe has been awarded a knighthood, while MI5 head Jonathan Evans is made a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath.
Captain Raymond "Jerry" Roberts - one of the four founder members of Bletchley Park's Testery section tasked with breaking the German top-level code Tunny - has been recognised with an MBE.