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Denmark votes to join EU common defence policy

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An overwhelming majority of Danes have voted in favour of joining the EU's common defence policy 30 years after opting out.

A total of 66.9% of Denmark's 4.3 million eligible voters were in favour of scrapping the opt-out in Wednesday's referendum, while 33.1% voted against.

The result means the Scandinavian country will seek closer defence links with allies after Russia's invasion of Ukraine.

“An overwhelming majority of Danes have chosen to abolish the defence opt-out. I’m very, very happy about that,” Prime Minister Mette Frederiksen said.

“We have sent a clear signal to Putin," she added. "With the decision we have made, we show that when Putin invades a free and independent country and threatens peace and stability, we will move closer together.”

Ursula von der Leyen, the President of the European Commission, posted a message on Twitter saying the Danish people had sent a "strong message of commitment to our common security."

What does it mean to end Denmark's opt-out?

Ending Denmark’s opt-out will have limited practical effect for either Denmark or the EU. The referendum follows the historic bids by fellow Nordic countries Sweden and Finland to join NATO - something to be taken up at a summit next month in Madrid.

NATO member Denmark joining the EU’s defence policy will have a relatively modest impact on Europe’s security architecture, particularly compared to Sweden and Finland joining NATO. But Christine Nissen, a researcher with the Danish Institute for International Studies, said both moves were “part of the same story,” and will strengthen military cooperation on a continent stunned by the war in Ukraine.

The main effect of abandoning the opt-out will be that Danish officials could stay in the room when EU colleagues discuss defence topics, and Danish forces can take part in EU military operations.

It's the first time that one of the four Danish opt-outs from the EU's Maastricht Treaty, which laid the foundation for political and economic union, has been scrapped by voters in Denmark.

”I believe people have voted yes because of the war in Ukraine. The ‘yes’ side has tried to misuse the war in Ukraine to make the Danes feel that it is important that we stand together,” said Morten Messerschmidt, the leader of the opposition Danish People’s Party and a leading opponent of removing the defence opt-out.

One of the founding members of NATO, Denmark has stayed on the sidelines of the EU’s efforts to build a common security and defence policy in parallel with the trans-Atlantic military alliance.

Denmark's wary approach to European integration

For decades, Europe’s been a source of contention in Denmark. In 1992, voters set back plans to turn the European construction into a union by rejecting the Maastricht treaty amid widespread opposition to a federal European government that could limit the sovereignty of individual nations.

At an EU summit in Edinburgh, Scotland, later that year, European leaders agreed on a text with tailor-made provisions allowing Danes to ratify a revised treaty with four provisions.

They allowed Danes to stay out of a joint EU citizenship, justice and home affairs, the monetary union which allowed Danes to stay out of the euro and keep the krone, and defence.

The citizenship issue, which said European citizenship would not replace national citizenship, has since become irrelevant as other members later adopted the same position.

But the other provisions remain intact despite efforts by successive governments to overturn them. In a 2000 referendum, Danish voters decided to stay outside the euro and 15 years later they voted to keep the exemption on justice and home affairs.

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