Jewish and Palestinian protesters clashed with each other and the Israeli police in Jerusalem early on Friday in the city's most serious violence since 2015.
More than a hundred people, mostly Palestinians, were injured with 22 people admitted to hospital.
Police say they made more than 50 arrests, including both Jewish and Palestinian protesters.
The night-time clashes happened after a march by far-right Jews near the Damascus Gate area of Jerusalem's Old City.
The police, who said their aim was to keep the two sides apart, fired water cannon loaded with so-called skunk water which leaves a stench on anyone it hits.
Officers also fired stun grenades and rubber bullets with one video appearing to show a round being fired directly at a man filming the unrest.
The Jewish march, organised by the far-right group Lehava, followed days of increasing tension after a video emerged on social media site TikTok showing a 17-year-old Palestinian slapping an ultra-orthodox Jew in the face on a tram in the city.
The video is said to be part of a growing trend of instances in which young Palestinians have filmed themselves harassing ultra-orthodox Jews in the city.
The Israeli police have arrested two 17-year-old Palestinians over the slapping incident.
At the overnight protests, Jewish demonstrators chanted "death to Arabs" and said their march was to "restore Jewish dignity".
The head of Lehava, Bentzi Gopstein said: "We've come here tonight to clarify to anyone who thinks otherwise: Jerusalem is ours."
They were blocked from entering the East Jerusalem Palestinian district of Sheikh Jarrah by the Israeli police.
A bus was attacked on a road leading to the Sheikh Jarrah neighbourhood and a Palestinian woman suffered head injuries.
And a Jewish man was beaten and wounded after he abandoned his car when it was attacked by Palestinian protesters.
He was taken to hospital.
The Old City's Damascus Gate itself has been focus of particular tension for past few days between Palestinians and Israeli police after the decision to prevent people from sitting in the area.
The decision to barricade the plaza has caused tension and humiliation among Palestinians who traditionally use it as a night-time focal point during this month of Ramadan.
The broader context is an emboldened hard-line Israeli nationalist movement.
Expansion activity by Israeli settlers in the Palestinian West Bank has increased in recent months and the far-right have been emboldened politically with their own representative in the parliament, the Knesset, which the protesters feel gives them legitimacy.