Twice as many people said the Harry Potter author should lead the pro-UK campaign than the current Labour leader.
The result will be seen as an embarrassment for Mr Corbyn, who has lead the official Opposition in Westminster for 18 months.
By contrast Theresa May, the Prime Minister, and Ruth Davidson, the Scottish Tory leader, both poll above Ms Rowling despite concerns about the Conservatives’ appeal north of the border.
The ORB poll comes after a week in which the UK’s future has faced fresh questions when the SNP demanded another Scottish independence referendum before spring 2019 - something rejected by Mrs May.
On Wednesday and Thursday voters across Britain were asked who “should lead the pro-UK campaign against Scottish independence” and presented a list of seven leading candidates.
Almost a third of voters picked Mrs May, the Tory leader, while Ms Davidson came second with the backing of 16 per cent of those polled.
However it was Ms Rowling, whose Harry Potter series has made her one of the richest women in Britain, who came next - beating any Labour politician.
Ms Rowling was picked by 13 per cent of voters. Mr Corbyn, by comparison, was selected by only 7 per cent.
Gordon Brown and Lord Darling, two Labour grandees who played prominent roles in the 2014 referendum campaign, each were picked by 10 per cent of respondents.
Mr Corbyn has seen his personal poll ratings sink to levels not seen for a Labour leader since Michael Foot in the 1980s.
He is also facing questions about his ability to battle Scottish independence after it emerged he failed to campaign in the country at the 2014 referendum.
Ms Rowling is a repeated critics of the SNP on Twitter and donated £1 million to the pro-UK campaign in 2014.
Ian Murray, Labour’s only MP in Scotland, hinted this week he would be supportive of Ms Rowling leading a pro-UK campaign if a second independence vote does come about.
Mr Murray told the Politics Home website the person in charge of the anti-independence campaign “has to be somebody who is not a politician - of which JK Rowling is not”.
A spokesman for Ms Rowling declined to comment when asked for her views on Scottish independence.
IN FULL: POLL RESULTS
Qu: If there was a second referendum, which of these people do you think should lead the pro-UK campaign against Scottish independence?
Theresa May: 31%
Ruth Davidson: 16%
JK Rowling: 13%
Gordon Brown: 10%
Lord Darling: 10%
Jeremy Corbyn: 7%
Lord (Ming) Campbell: 6%
Source: ORB poll of 2013 UK voters, conducted 15-16 March 2017