During a press conference on Tuesday, Victoria Police Chief Commissioner Shane Patton said the 38-year-old woman had been charged with nine offences after she allegedly attacked the 26-year-old constable in Frankston near the Bayside Shopping Centre.
The constable was on patrol with another officer on Monday evening when they approached a woman who was not wearing a face mask.
"After a confrontation and being assaulted by that women, those police officers went to ground and there was a scuffle," said Mr Patton.
"And during that scuffle this 38-year-old woman hit the head - smashed the head - of the police woman's several times into a concrete area of the ground."
The Victoria Police Chief Commissioner condemned the behaviour of the woman as "totally unacceptable".
He added: "That's someone who thinks they are above the law, they are not wearing a mask, they're approached and asked their reason why not, and then to react like that is completely over the top.
"It's this type of irresponsible behaviour that we're going to address."
The Victoria Police Association said the 26-year-old constable suffered a concussion and was missing a clump of hair following the alleged assault.
"This 26-year-old constable returned to the station concussed and missing a clump of hair. Because she asked someone to wear a mask," said the police association.
"She and many others are sacrificing their safety for our safety."
The officer was taken to Frankston Hospital for assessment and medical treatment and was recovering at home on Tuesday.
The second female police officer who was on patrol with the 26-year-old constable was also allegedly pushed and assaulted.
Premier Daniel Andrews described the woman's behaviour as "appalling" and "shameful conduct".
Police union secretary Wayne Gatt added that the incident showed how police were being tested by "smartarses" who continued to flout Covid-19 restrictions.
He said: "Our members are being tested, at roadblocks, at sites, but they are holding the line and helping the community and they won't be pushed and shoved by people like this.
"They have a job to do and we should be proud of them for doing it."
The woman who carried out the alleged assault was fined $200 (£153) for breaching coronavirus restrictions.
Police said she was bailed due to having no criminal history but will face court in March next year.
It comes as Victoria introduced new coronavirus restrictions on Monday. The state announced 429 new infections on Monday and 13 more deaths overnight.
Non-essential businesses will close starting late on Wednesday in Melbourne, Australia’s second-largest city.
The new restrictions followed Mr Andrews on Sunday declaring a disaster in Melbourne and introducing an evening curfew for six weeks.