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If the Government is defeated, in the vote to be held at 10pm, it would almost certainly trigger a general election, although that would require a significant number of Tory MPs to vote against it, or at least abstain.
That however which would appear unlikely given the party is leaderless and in no fit state to fight an election, while the initial wave of anger at Mr Johnson has largely subsided.
It may offer the Prime Minister a final chance to defend his record before MPs after the tumultuous events which led to his downfall, amid accusations of lying and rule-breaking.
Mr Johnson had been expected to open the debate – although it is not clear whether he will now do so or whether he we leave it to another minister.
Unusually, the vote will take place on a Government motion.
Labour had originally said it would seek to hold a confidence vote after Mr Johnson announced he was staying on as Prime Minister until the autumn and a new Conservative leader was in place.
However, the Government refused to accept the wording of the Labour motion, which expressed no confidence in the Government and the Prime Minister, effectively forcing Tory MPs to go on record saying they still had confidence in Mr Johnson if they wanted to avoid an election.
So instead ministers tabled a motion of their own after Commons Deputy Speaker Nigel Evans told the two parties to resolve the matter themselves.
Ahead of the vote, Liberal Democrat leader Sir Ed Davey, who has tabled an amendment demanding Mr Johnson resign immediately, said: “Conservative MPs have the chance to show they are listening to the people by getting rid of this failing Prime Minister.
“Boris Johnson should go now and, when a new Conservative leader is in place, we should have a general election so that people can kick out these Conservatives once and for all.”