Officers found the woman seriously injured at an address on Cromford Street at around 3.10am on Sunday, South Yorkshire Police said in a statement.
The woman was take to hospital where she was pronounced dead just over an hour later.
A 43-year-old man from Sheffield has been arrested on suspicion of murder and remains in police custody.
Police have appealed for anyone with any information to contact them online, through live chat, or by calling 101.
The incident number to quote is 151 of 5 June 2022.