The US claims that Pyongyang is smuggling refined petroleum through illegal ship-to-ship transfers.
Mr Pompeo warned that violations could reduce North Korea’s incentive to give up its nuclear weapons. He was speaking at a press conference at the United Nations (UN) in New York.
Diplomats in Russia have asked for additional time to investigate the allegations that products into the country beyond the quota of 500,000 barrels per year allowed under UN sanctions.
The US has asked the Security Council committee monitoring sanctions against North Korea to send a letter to member states and the public saying that North Korea breached the quota.
It also asked the committee to prevent ship-to-ship transfers of petroleum products.
Council members were given the opportunity to object and two diplomats said Russia put "a hold" on the US requests.
One diplomat said Russia asked for six more months, and China supported the "hold."
“Some of our friends have decided they want to go around the rules,” Nikki Haley, the US Ambassador to the UN said.
She added that sanctions must remain in place and be enforced until North Korea had taken clear and concrete steps towards denuclearisation.
The diplomats spoke on condition of anonymity because council communications are private.
Agencies contributed to this report