Despite Russia’s faltering campaign in Ukraine, Mr Putin said he did not regret his so-called special military operation.
Going further, the Russian President said some news about the conflict in Ukraine could not be trusted, saying: “There is a lot of fake news, deceit and lies.”
Russia has devoted hundreds of thousands of troops to its campaign including a large number of reservists in order to try to mount a successful invasion.
“We share your pain,” Mr Putin told the mothers in a pre-recorded TV clip.
"We understand that nothing can replace the loss of a son, a child."
The meeting was held in order to coincide with Russia’s Mother’s Day on Sunday.
None of the remarks from the mothers at the meeting have been published.
In September, Mr Putin ordered a part-mobilisation of 300,000 men in September after his forces suffered heavy losses on the battlefield.
According to US sources, 100,000 Russian soldiers are estimated to have been killed or wounded in the conflict.
Although a large military force has been devoted to the invasion, in the last few months Russia has suffered major setbacks including the loss of the key southern Ukrainian city of Kherson.
Following the loss military personnel and territory in Ukraine, Russia has unleashed waves of drones and missiles across the country.
Several of the those strikes have hit critical infrastructure in Ukraine while the UN nuclear watchdog has warned of shelling near the Zaporizhzhia nuclear plant.