Queen's death: The London landmarks providing the backdrop to the royal mourning

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LONDON, UNITED KINGDOM - SEPTEMBER 14: The coffin of Queen Elizabeth II, adorned with a Royal Standard and the Imperial State Crown is pulled by a Gun Carriage of The King's Troop Royal Horse Artillery, during a procession from Buckingham Palace to the Westminster Hall, in London, United Kingdom on September 14, 2022. From Wednesday until a few hours before her funeral on Monday, Queen Elizabeth II will lay in state in Westminster Hall inside the Palace of Westminster, and it is expected that long lines of people will form to pay their respects. (Photo by Rasid Necati Aslim/Anadolu Agency via Getty Images)
The coffin of Queen Elizabeth II, is moved by procession from Buckingham Palace to Westminster Hall. (Getty Images)

As the world prepares to pay its final respects to Queen Elizabeth II at the state funeral on Monday, a number of key places are playing crucial roles in the traditions and rituals of the royal mourning period.

Several of London's most historic landmarks are the setting for the important ceremonial procedures, some of which also have key military significance.

Yahoo UK looks at these places and what they mean, and who has been carrying out some of the important tasks in the lead-up to the Queen’s funeral.

Palace of Westminster

Big Ben and the Houses of Parliament are bathed in morning sunlight in central London on June 24, 2016.
Britain has voted to break out of the European Union, striking a thunderous blow against the bloc and spreading panic through world markets Friday as sterling collapsed to a 31-year low. / AFP PHOTO / Niklas HALLE'N        (Photo credit should read NIKLAS HALLE'N/AFP via Getty Images)
Palace of Westminster. (Getty Images)

The Palace of Westminster includes the Houses of Parliament, Westminster Hall and the Elizabeth Tower, often referred to as Big Ben. It has a long and storied history: burning down in a fire in 1834 and suffering further damage when it was bombed during the Blitz of the Second World War.

One of King Charles III's first acts as monarch was to visit the Palace of Westminster and receive condolences from MPs and Lords.

He will also be back for each state opening of parliament.

Big Ben is actually the name of one of the bells inside, but it is commonly used to refer to the tower too. The bell itself is currently muffled during the mourning period.

It was previously called the clock tower, but was renamed in 2012 to mark the Queen’s Diamond Jubilee.

The other towers are the Victoria Tower and the Central Tower.

The Mall

TOPSHOT - Members of the public fill The Mall before a flypast during the Queen's Birthday Parade, the Trooping the Colour, as part of Queen Elizabeth II's Platinum Jubilee celebrations, in London on June 2, 2022. - Huge crowds converged on central London in bright sunshine on Thursday for the start of four days of public events to mark Queen Elizabeth II's historic Platinum Jubilee, in what could be the last major public event of her long reign. (Photo by Daniel LEAL / various sources / AFP) (Photo by DANIEL LEAL/AFP via Getty Images)
The Mall during the Queen's Platinum Jubilee celebrations earlier this year. (Getty Images)

The Mall is the road that leads up to Buckingham Palace in central London.

It’s usually filled with people during the Trooping the Colour ceremony, the annual parade which marks the monarch’s official birthday. Earlier in the year it was packed with well-wishers celebrating the Queen's Platinum Jubilee.

The Queen’s coffin travelled down the Mall during its procession to Westminster Hall, where the Lying-in-State is currently taking place. Followed by the King and senior members of the royal family, the coffin was carried on a Gun Carriage of the The King's Troop Royal Horse Artillery.

The coffin will also likely go back down the Mall after the funeral.

Westminster Hall

LONDON, ENGLAND - SEPTEMBER 14: Procession with the coffin of Britain's Queen Elizabeth arrives at Westminster Hall from Buckingham Palace for her lying in state, on September 14, 2022 in London, England.  (Phil Noble - WPA Pool/Getty Images)
The coffin of Queen Elizabeth arrives at Westminster Hall for her lying in state. (Phil Noble - WPA Pool/Getty Images)

Westminster Hall is in the Palace of Westminster, and is the oldest part of the Parliamentary estate.

Over the course of her reign, the Queen addressed both Houses of Parliament (the Commons and the Lords) in Westminster Hall.

She gave personally written speeches to parliamentarians on her Jubilee in 2002 and in 2012.

But now it’s where her coffin is located as she lies in state.

LONDON, UNITED KINGDOM - SEPTEMBER 16 Elizabeth II Queen's lying-in-state in London Westminster Hall.  September 16, 2022. (Photo by Lorena Sopena/Anadolu Agency via Getty Images)
Queen's lying-in-state in Westminster Hall. (Photo by Lorena Sopena/Anadolu Agency via Getty Images)

The hall is open to the public for people to visit and pay their respects, as it was in 2002 when the Queen Mother died. People have so far waited up to eleven hours for their chance to see the coffin, in a queue that stretches nearly five miles.

The hall is open for 23 hours a day to accommodate all the well-wishers.

Her four children will also hold a vigil to their mother — with Anne making history by becoming the first woman to do so.

The hall is also where Charles received condolences from members of both Houses of Parliament soon after he became monarch.

Westminster Abbey

LONDON, UNITED KINGDOM - MAY 13:  Westminster Abbey, London, During The Service Of Thanksgiving For The Life And Work Of Ted Hughes, Poet Laureate.  (Photo by Tim Graham/Getty Images)
Westminster Abbey. (Getty Images)

Westminster Abbey is a stone's throw from the Houses of Parliament and is the site of the Commonwealth Day service, a day which was very important to the Queen.

It’s also where the Tomb of the Unknown Warrior is and the Queen paid respects at the tomb over Remembrance Week each year.

The bouquets of royal brides are sent to the tomb after the wedding.

The Abbey is where the Queen’s funeral will be held, led by the Archbishop of Canterbury.

The funeral will take place on Monday, 19th September and will be attended by heads of state and dignitaries from across the world.

The coffin will be taken by gun carriage from the church, ending up in Windsor, where she will be buried inside the chapel.

Westminster Abbey will also host the coronation in due course.

Horse Guards Parade

LONDON, ENGLAND - SEPTEMBER 14:  People watch from windows as ceremonial troops escort the gun carriage carrying Queen Elizabeth II's coffin across Horse Guards Parade during the procession from Buckingham Palace to the Palace of Westminster on September 14, 2022 in London, England. Queen Elizabeth II's coffin is taken in procession on a Gun Carriage of The King's Troop Royal Horse Artillery from Buckingham Palace to Westminster Hall where she will lay in state until the early morning of her funeral. Queen Elizabeth II died at Balmoral Castle in Scotland on September 8, 2022, and is succeeded by her eldest son, King Charles III. (Photo by Bryn Colton/Getty Images)
Ceremonial troops escort the gun carriage carrying the Queen's coffin across Horse Guards Parade. (Getty Images)

Horse Guards Parade is probably best known as the large open space where much of the procession for the annual Trooping the Colour takes place.

The Trooping the Colour parade is held each year for the monarch’s official birthday, which has been marked in June throughout Queen Elizabeth II’s reign.

The parade ground is also the official entrance to Buckingham Palace and St James’ Palace.

The procession from Buckingham Palace to Westminster Hall also partly took place in Horse Guards Parade

St James’s Palace

Tourists are seen at St Jamess Park and outside Buckingham Palace in London, on August 21, 2019.  (Photo by Alberto Pezzali/NurPhoto via Getty Images)
St James's Park outside Buckingham Palace. (Getty Images)

St James’s Palace is in central London, close to Buckingham Palace and Horse Guards Parade.

The palace is where the Accession Council convened as soon as possible after the Queen’s death.

The council began the process of officially announcing Charles the monarch.

He was proclaimed sovereign at part one of the meeting by the Accession Council, but was not present. In the second part of the council, Charles read a declaration, commemorated the late Queen and took an oath.

For the very first time, this centuries-old ceremony was broadcast on television, and the world watched Charles be proclaimed as monarch.

A proclamation of the new king was also made from the balcony of the palace by the Garter King of Arms.

The monarch’s funeral will also have been planned from offices in St James’ Palace.

Charles I statue and the Royal Exchange

The Statues Of London,United Kingdom, Architect London, The Statues Of London Book | Charles I By Hubert Le Sueur (C.1580-1658) Material Bronze Unveiled 1633 Location Junction Of Whitehall And Trafalgar Square, Wc2. (Photo by View Pictures/Universal Images Group via Getty Images)
Charles I statue. (Getty Images)

There are two places to start with where declarations of the Queen’s death and the accession of Charles will be made.

One is the Charles I statue in Trafalgar Square, central London, and the second proclamation was read at the Royal Exchange in the City.

Once the announcements were made there, others took place around the country at town halls and in various capital cities.

Buckingham Palace

LONDON - MARCH 25:  An aerial view of Buckingham Palace March 25, 2007 in the heart of London, England.  (Photo by Mike Hewitt/Getty Images)
Buckingham Palace has been the Queen's London home. (Photo by Mike Hewitt/Getty Images)

Buckingham Palace has been the main residence of the Royal Family and the reigning monarch for some time, so it’s fitting that the Queen’s coffin spent one final night there.

The coffin was placed in the Bow Room at the palace before it moved to Westminster Hall to lie in state.

A notice was placed in the grounds of Buckingham Palace with the news of the Queen’s death, a sombre version of the messages the public has grown more used to seeing of royal births.

St George’s Chapel

WINDSOR, ENGLAND - APRIL 17: Members of the royal family watch as Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh’s coffin, covered with His Royal Highness’s Personal Standard arrives at St George’s Chapel carried by a bearer party found by the Royal Marines during the funeral of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh at Windsor Castle on April 17, 2021 in Windsor, England. Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark was born 10 June 1921, in Greece. He served in the British Royal Navy and fought in WWII. He married the then Princess Elizabeth on 20 November 1947 and was created Duke of Edinburgh, Earl of Merioneth, and Baron Greenwich by King VI. He served as Prince Consort to Queen Elizabeth II until his death on April 9 2021, months short of his 100th birthday. His funeral takes place today at Windsor Castle with only 30 guests invited due to Coronavirus pandemic restrictions. (Photo by Richard Pohle - WPA Pool/Getty Images)
St George’s Chapel in Windsor during Prince Philip's funeral. (Photo by Richard Pohle - WPA Pool/Getty Images)

St George's Chapel in the grounds of Windsor Castle has been a place of worship for the Queen for decades.

And it’s where her body will be laid to rest in a private burial service once the funeral is over in London.

The Queen, who loved Windsor Castle and grew up there during the Second World War, spent dozens of Easters there carrying out the rituals of Maundy Thursday, and saw her youngest son, Prince Edward, get married there.

Prince Harry and Princess Eugenie also married here.

It’s fitting the Queen should be laid to rest in the chapel, where her husband the Duke of Edinburgh, her father George VI, her mother Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon and her sister Margaret are all buried.

As well as the major landmarks, here is a breakdown of the key roles involved in the funeral arrangements:

Royal titles

King: Charles has become King Charles III.

Duke of Lancaster: Charles also becomes the Duke of Lancaster, a title relating to the Duchy of Lancaster, the plot of land which is established for the monarch.

Queen consort: Camilla is now the queen consort. This is a title that Queen Elizabeth supported Camilla taking on, saying in a message marking her Platinum Jubilee "it is my sincere wish that, when the time comes, Camilla will be known as queen consort as she continues her own loyal service."

Prince of Wales: Charles as heir was made the Prince of Wales when he was five years old. Now, his son William, has been made the Prince of Wales. William has also inherited the Duchy of Cornwall, and become the Duke of Cornwall.

Duchess of Cornwall: As her husband stops being the Duke of Cornwall, the title of Duchess of Cornwall will also transfer from Camilla to Kate. William and Kate will retain the Duchy of Cambridge. Kate will be known as Catherine, the Duchess of Cornwall and Cambridge.

Princess of Wales: With William becoming the Prince of Wales, his wife Kate will now be known as the Princess of Wales, a title last held by Diana.

Earl Marshal: The Earl Marshal is the person in charge of organising the monarch’s state funeral. The Duke of Norfolk is the Earl Marshal - currently Edward William Fitzalan-Howard. It’s a hereditary position. He will work from offices in St James’s Palace and is the most senior peer in the country.

Garter King of Arms: The Garter King of Arms is the senior King of Arms, and senior officer in the college of arms, the heraldic authority in England, Scotland and Wales. It’s currently held by David Vines White. He will read out the proclamation of the new king from St James’s Palace after the council meets.

Which troops are involved after the Queen’s death?

There have been several different regiments of the armed forces involved in key parts of the ceremonies following the Queen’s death.

The 1st Life Guards: The 1st Life Guards are part of the Household Cavalry, who have been the monarch’s guardians for 300 years. Created in the 1650s, this cavalry unit merged with The Blues and Royals making up the Household Cavalry. However, both units have maintained their own long held specific traditions.

Coldstream Guards: This regiment is the longest continuously serving regiment in the British Army, they play hugely important roles in many ceremonial duties. When Charles was proclaimed as king, they removed their famous bearskin hats and cheered the new monarch.

King’s Troop Royal House Artillery: This regiment fired one round every minute in Hyde Park as the Queen's coffin left Buckingham Palace and travelled to Westminster Hall. During the sombre procession, around 38 rounds were fired altogether.