The Communities Minister spoke out following a number of shocking incidents, including a rabbi being beaten up in Chigwell and foul abuse being hurled in a Jewish community in north London.
Four men have been arrested after anti-Semitic abuse was heard being shouted from a car covered with Palestinian flags passing down Finchley Road on videos shared on social media.
Sunday’s incident received cross-party criticism, with the Prime Minister condemning the acts as "shameful racism" that have "no place" in society.
On the same day, a rabbi was left needing hospital treatment after he was attacked outside his synagogue in Chigwell, Essex.
Mr Jenrick said the attacks that took place over the weekend were "racist and extremely serious crimes".
Making a statement to the Commons, he said: "No-one could fail to be appalled by the disgraceful scenes of anti-Semitic abuse being directed at members of the Jewish community in the past week.
"In Chigwell, Rabbi Rafi Goodwin was hospitalised after being attacked outside his synagogue. In London, activists drove through Golders Green and Finchley, both areas with large Jewish populations, apparently shouting anti-Semitic abuse through a megaphone.
"These are intimidatory, racist and extremely serious crimes."
He told MPs: "During Shavuot, as always, we stand with our Jewish friends and neighbours who have sadly been subjected to a deeply disturbing upsurge in anti-Semitism in recent years - particularly on social media.
"Like all forms of racism, anti-Semitism has no place in our society.
"A lot of young, British Jews are discovering for the first time that their friends don't understand anti-Semitism, can't recognise it and don't care that they are spreading it.
"They are not responsible for the actions of a Government thousands of miles away but are made to feel as if they are. Seeing their friends post social media content that glorifies Hamas, an illegal terrorist organisation - an organisation whose charter calls for every Jew in the world to be killed."
Mr Jenrick continued: "Every time the virus of anti-Semitism re-enters our society it masks itself as social justice, selling itself as speaking truth to power. This Government is taking robust action to root it out."