Moscow has warned Washington that its cruise missile attack against the Syrian regime "plays into the hands of extremists".
Russia's foreign minister Sergey Lavrov expressed his views to American secretary of state Rex Tillerson in their first telephone conversation since the strikes on an airbase near Homs.
Washington claims the base was used by the Syrian government to launch a chemical attack on civilians in Idlib province on Tuesday, in which around 80 people were killed, including babies.
While the US cruise missile strikes early on Friday were in retaliation for the gas attack, Mr Lavrov accused America of threatening global security.
He pointed out the US attack "on a country whose government fights terrorism only plays into the hands of extremists, creates additional threats to regional and global security".
Russia is a close ally of President Bashar al Assad, and Mr Lavrov told Mr Tillerson that assertions the Syrian military used a chemical weapon in Idlib province on Tuesday do not correspond to reality.
The Russian foreign minister said the pair agreed to continue discussions on Syria in person.
Mr Tillerson is expected in Moscow for talks with Russian officials next week, after the G7 meeting.
UK foreign secretary Boris Johnson had also been due to visit Moscow in the coming days but has now cancelled his trip amid growing tensions over Syria.
Syrian allies Russia and Iran have both condemned the US airstrikes .
The US ambassador to the UN has said America is "prepared to do more" militarily in Syria but hopes it will not be necessary.