Waitrose received an overall satisfaction score of 82%, including five-star ratings for its customer service and the quality of its fresh produce.
Meanwhile Tesco scored just 45% - placing it at the bottom of the poll of 11,492 people by consumer watchdog Which?
It also received poor marks for its pricing, store environment, quality of fresh produce and customer service.
Discount supermarkets Aldi and Lidl came second and third best with scores of 74% and 69% respectively, beating some of their bigger rivals such as Morrisons (59%), Sainsbury (LSE: SBRY.L - news) 's (58%) and Asda (53%).
Aldi and Lidl were the only supermarkets to get four-star ratings for their pricing, with 97% of those surveyed saying they both offer good value.
The poll revealed that consumers' biggest irritation when supermarket shopping is not being able to compare prices because of different unit measurements, with 37% reporting that this annoyed them.
They also wanted supermarkets to keep special offers simple, with 55% preferring straight discounts ahead of other offers such as petrol vouchers (16%) or buy-one-get-one-free deals (11%).
A Tesco spokeswoman said: "Millions of customers shop regularly with Tesco and we are always looking at ways to improve their shopping experience.
"We have made a £1bn commitment to make Tesco better for our UK customers and since this survey in October 2012, we have had an encouraging Christmas and New Year and are delivering further improvements this year.
The survey was conducted before horsemeat was discovered in products sold as beef, triggering a probe by the Food Standards Agency which has embroiled British supermarkets.