Caretakers are struggling to afford food for the country’s 4,000 captive elephants as the global tourism industry collapses.
The animals can eat up to 200kg of food per day.
It comes as the country reported 120 new cases bringing the total to 1,771 on Wednesday, while two more people have died, resulting in 12 total fatalities.
Thailand, which relies on tourism for a large portion of its economic growth, has been forced to close its borders to all visitors while the country goes into lockdown.
Lek Chailert, founder of Save Elephant Foundation, told the BBC that if no support comes “to keep them safe”, the animals could starve to death or be put on the streets to beg.
Some elephants could be sold to zoos or returned to the cruel logging business, which officially banned the use of the animals in 1989, he added.
He said: “It's a very bleak outlook unless some financial help is received immediately.”
Meanwhile, Kerri McCrea, manager of the Kindred Spirit Elephant Sanctuary in Mae Chaem, said that villagers who live nearby had brought approximately 70 elephants back to her area because they were not receiving money from tourism to support them.
"Feeding elephants is a priority but the issue is that there's not enough forest left to feed them," she told the BBC.
"The worst case scenario is that owners will have to chose between themselves and their elephants.”
“The people here don't have much, but they're doing what it takes to keep the elephants alive for now."
Ms McCrae said that happy elephants are usually swinging their tails, flapping their ears or giving themselves dust baths to keep cool.
But when they get hungry, elephants get depressed so none of that behaviour would be on display, she added.