The disclosure is the latest development in an ongoing battle between the president and House Democrats, who have sought to force the German lender to release banking records from Mr Trump and his family.
While at least two committees run by Democrats have subpoenaed those documents, the president has appealed their release, consistent with his resistance to disclosing his finances dating back to 2015 when he first announced his bid for the presidency.
In a newly disclosed redacted letter from August, however, Deutsche Bank claimed that financial records related to Mr Trump and three of his children did include tax returns — but the president’s were not among them.
Reuters reports that news organisations have asked the court to unseal the letter, so that the public can know which members of the family Deutsche Bank has on file.
The court denied that motion on Thursday.
Mr Trump’s financial life has been subject to intense scrutiny since he became president, with many expressing concern that he did not place his business holdings into a blind trust when he took the White House.
Those circumstances have left open the possibility for conflicts of interest for the president, and the possibility that Mr Trump could use his power as president to enrich himself and his family personally.
Reuters contributed to this report