The US President has said he expects "things will work out fine" with Russia, a day after warning relations were "at an all-time low".
Despite coming to power stating his desire to improve ties with Moscow, the discourse has become increasingly fractious since Russia decided to stand by ally Syria after a suspected gas attack killed scores of civilians.
Moments after the US secretary of state Rex Tillerson and Russia's foreign minister Sergei Lavrov ended a news conference in Moscow on Wednesday, Russia vetoed a US-backed UN resolution calling for a swift investigation.
Russian President Vladimir Putin then said the "level of trust" had "not improved but has rather deteriorated".
But posting on Twitter on Thursday, Donald Trump seemed to strike a more conciliatory note.
He wrote: "Things will work out fine between the U.S.A. and Russia. At the right time everyone will come to their senses & there will be lasting peace!"
During his visit to Moscow, Mr Tillerson urged the Kremlin to abandon its support for the Syrian regime.
"Russia, as their closest ally in the conflict, perhaps has the best means of helping Assad recognise this reality," he told reporters.
Mr Lavrov, meanwhile, denounced America's missile strikes on a Syrian airbase, launched in the aftermath of the gas attack, as illegal, and accused Washington of behaving unpredictably.
One of his deputies went further, telling Russia's state-owned news agency: "In general, primitiveness and loutishness are very characteristic of the current rhetoric coming out of Washington."
Moscow and Damascus have repeatedly denied that the Syrian military used chemical weapons in the rebel-held town of Khan Sheikhoun.
President Bashar al Assad on Thursday insisted the allegations were a "100% fabrication" used to justify the use of cruise missiles against his country.