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Over the coming weeks, it will be up to party members to decide which of those candidates will be the next prime minister.
Both have clashed over policy in their bid to secure the top job.
Here we look at their stances on key issues.
– Tax and spending
Rishi Sunak: The former chancellor has pitched himself as the fiscally conservative candidate and had criticised his rivals’ plans to raise borrowing to pay for tax cuts as “comforting fairytales”.
He has promised to “deliver tax cuts that drive growth”, but to do so in a “way that’s responsible” and only “after we’ve got a grip of inflation”.
Has branded plans by his rival as “immoral” for passing debt onto the next generation.
Liz Truss: The Foreign Secretary has pledged to “start cutting taxes from day one” with a new Budget and Spending Review that would reverse April’s rise in national insurance and next year’s corporation tax hike from 19% to 25%.
She has vowed to “simplify” taxes and ensure people are not penalised for caring for children or relatives.
She has not explained how she would pay for the £30 billion in tax cuts she has promised, but insists they “can be paid for within the existing fiscal envelope”.
Ms Truss has said that cutting taxes will help curb inflation.
Rishi Sunak: Has re-iterated his support for the Government’s controversial Rwanda asylum policy, while also setting out a range of new measures to crack down on illegal migration.
His campaign has said he would do “whatever it takes” to get it up-and-running, while he has also unveiled a 10-point plan that includes the promise of a narrower definition of who qualifies for asylum compared to that offered by the European Convention on Human Rights.
Mr Sunak has also promised to give Parliament control over who comes to the UK by creating an annual cap on the number of refugees accepted each year, albeit one that can be changed in the case of sudden emergencies.
Liz Truss: Also supports the Rwanda policy and has said that under her leadership it could be extended further.
She has also said she will increase Border Force staff levels from 9,000 to 10,800, while also bringing forward a strengthened UK Bill of Rights to provide a “sound legal basis” to tackle illegal migration.
– Identity politics
Rishi Sunak: Has criticised “trends to erase women via the use of clumsy, gender-neutral language”. He has pledged a “manifesto for women’s right”, including opposing biological men being allowed to compete against women in sport, and guidance for schools on how they teach issues of sex and gender.
Liz Truss: Has previously shelved plans for an overhaul of gender recognition rules to make it easier for trans people to change their legal gender.
– Brexit and Europe
Fantastic day in the Kent sunshine meeting hundreds of @Conservatives members, talking Brexit opportunities, growing our economy, and how we’ll work together to win the next election.#LizForLeader pic.twitter.com/N8J1ZaYniG
— Liz for Leader (@trussliz) July 23, 2022
Rishi Sunak: The Leave-voter has promised to scrap or reform all EU law or bureaucracy still on the statute book by the time of the next general election, and have initial recommendations on whether each law stays or goes within 100 days.
Liz Truss: Voted Remain but has since embraced Brexit and scooped up the backing of staunch Brexiteers in the party. Helped push through the Northern Ireland Protocol Bill which critics say breaks international law.
Has vowed to review all EU laws retained after Brexit by the end of next year in a “red tape bonfire” if she becomes prime minister, and to scrap or replace those that are deemed to hinder UK growth.
Reportedly said she would seek to reform the European Convention on Human Rights but would be “prepared to leave” it.
Rishi Sunak: Views the Nato target of 2% of GDP as a “floor and not a ceiling” and notes it is set to rise to 2.5% “over time” but refuses to set “arbitrary targets”.
Liz Truss: Has pledged to increase defence spending to 3% of GDP by 2030 and strengthen the intelligence services. She said the Government’s current plan to cut the size of the Army to 72,500 in 2025 is “up for review”.
Great to get out and about with @GregHands yesterday. We met:
🏥surgeons, GPs & health campaigners @ChelwestFT
🤝elders at @chelseamuslims
🏠residents at World’s End
🎭culture fund recipients @ChelseaTheatre
Sign up: https://t.co/3cXn1rFhca pic.twitter.com/UeqZTKIfDp
— Rishi Sunak (@RishiSunak) July 22, 2022
Rishi Sunak: Has promised a “vaccines-style” taskforce to tackle NHS backlogs, calling dealing with the issue one of his top priorities.
Has plans to eliminate one-year NHS waiting times six months earlier than planned by September 2024, and to get overall numbers falling by next year.
Liz Truss: Agrees on the urgent need to deal with care backlogs, promising to she install a “strong” health secretary to solve the issue.
Has also said she is “completely committed” to current Government promises for NHS spending, despite her plans for tax cuts.
– Climate change and net zero
Rishi Sunak: Committed to reaching net zero emissions by 2050. He has pledged to keep the ban on building new onshore wind farms, but wants to introduce a legal target to make Britain energy self-sufficient by 2045 by overseeing a massive expansion in offshore turbines.
Liz Truss: Backs the net zero push, but would pause green levies on domestic energy bills, which could damage the target.
She says there is a strong case for lifting the ban on fracking and wants to move away from the EU’s habitat directive in favour of a stronger British biodiversity target.
– Housing and infrastructure
Rishi Sunak: Has vowed to improve housing stock and energy efficiency. He wants to scrap EU Solvency II rules to help investors put money into infrastructure assets.
Liz Truss: Would scrap what she calls “Stalinist” housing targets in favour of tax cuts and deregulation.