Vogue Portugal has said its cover for next month's magazine was designed to “shine a light” on an important issue of mental health after criticism that the magazine was insensitive.
The Madness Issue of the fashion magazine shows a cover shot of a woman in a bathtub in a hospital as a nurse pours water over her head.
Mental health experts and sufferers said the cover showed a “outdated” idea of treatment.
Vogue Portugal said the image on the cover was intended to “start a discussion”.
“The cover story explores the historical context of mental health and is designed to reflect real life and authentic stories,” the publisher said in a statement posted on Twitter on Saturday night.
"The issue features interviews and contributions from psychiatrists, sociologists, psychologists and other experts.”
However, Dr Katerina Alexandraki, a London-based clinical psychologist, said she thought the cover was “insensitive”.
“My view is that if a magazine would like to include images that would promote the public discussion on mental health, it would be important to do so without promoting narratives of vulnerability and helplessness,” she told the Telegraph.
“The cover reinforces the idea that mental health means hospitalisation – which is so far from the truth. Most of us will experience mental health issues without being sectioned. Not to mention how insensitive the term madness is.”
Sara Sampaio, a Portuguese model, said the image “should not be representing the conversation about mental health”.
Ms Sampaio, who said she had suffered mental health issues, said she considered it in “very bad taste”.
“It looks like its in an (outdated) mental hospital” that used to “torture” patients, she said in a video posted on social media.
Poorna Bell, a writer and mental health awareness advocate, whose husband took his own life in 2015, wrote about her disapproval on Twitter: “On behalf of anyone who has ever been in a psychiatric hospital or had a loved one who has been in one.”
Silvia Baptista, a psychotherapist based in Lisbon, said the cover was “everything the mental health conversation doesn't need.
“These nurses, this patient, what is this? What is this uninformed and disrespectful ensemble,” she wrote on Instagram, saying it was wrong to “glamorise” mental illness.