The Robins will face Challenge Cup foes Leigh Leopards in the play-offs and have the chance to claim home advantage in the final round thanks to a wholehearted performance against top-six hopefuls Salford.
James Batchelor and Ryan Hall scored KR's tries as Peters' team secured at least fifth spot, their highest finish since 2009.
"I'm really proud of the whole club," said Peters.
"It's a little win for us. We aren't in this competition to be in semis. We want to be there at the end and have an opportunity to do that now.
"I'm not getting carried away just yet. There's no doubt this club wants to chase trophies."
Rovers travel to relegated Wakefield Trinity on the final night, while Leigh host table-topping Wigan Warriors.
The Robins are two points behind their rivals and 34 worse off on for and against.
"It'd be huge (to play at home)," added Peters.
"But what we want to do is build against Wakefield. They will be hurting from Friday and want to finish Super League on a high.
"We can't go chase points. We have to build and see what happens.
"We can't control what Leigh do but it'd be nice."
KR demonstrated their defensive resolve in an absorbing contest that highlighted their character.
Salford were fresh from beating play-off rivals Warrington Wolves but are left relying on a favour from Huddersfield Giants after being shut out by the Robins.
"It was a very tough game," said Peters.
"We knew it was two desperate teams with high stakes. There was a lack of composure and nerves but you can't fault both teams' efforts.
"To defend like that and keep Salford to zero is a huge achievement for the players. We've spoken about our defence all year. Doing that and chasing zeros. Now it's about building on that."