The campaign group said 61 of its supporters walked onto Charing Cross Road, High Street Kensington, Harleyford Street and Blackfriars Road and sat down holding banners demanding that the government halts all new oil and gas licences.
A number of activists locked onto each other while others glued their hands onto the tarmac.
At the protest on Harleyford Street, near Oval tube station, tensions were high as drivers got out of their cars and dragged the demonstrators off the road.
One furious driver pleaded with the protesters blocking the roads, and said: “This is f***ing pathetic,” as he dragged people out of the way.
“I’ve asked you nicely – there are people trying to go about their business.”
He added: “Go to Parliament. Go to Westminster.”
Another driver said “I’m going to crack someone in their f***ing face” as he got out of his car.
Despite being dragged off the road, the protesters persistently returned to retake their places.
On High Street Kensington, the protesters faced more backlash as one passer-by grabbed their banner off them and stormed into the middle of the road.
He was then heard shouting that he was going “to start f***ing throwing punches”, while the activists continued to insist they were “non-violent” and apologised that he was caught up in the situation.
One protester, Anna Berrill, 20, a philosophy student from Leeds said: “I’m doing this because it breaks my heart to witness the tragedies that are happening and will keep coming because of our actions, and to live in a crumbling world and not do anything is unbearable.”
Helen Redfern, 57, a grandmother of four and social enterprise founder from Gateshead, said she was protesting as she felt that the non-violent approach was the “only option” left for her.
“I cannot sit by and watch people suffering around the world already, knowing that unless we act fast, more and more people will suffer more and more climate-related disasters now and in the future,” she added.
The road blockages follow four weeks of civil resistance by Just Stop Oil supporters during which the police have made 626 arrests.
The Metropolitan Police tweeted: “We are aware of Just Stop Oil protests in Kensington High Street, Charing Cross Road, Kennington Park Road and Blackfriars Road. Police were immediately on scene and a number of arrests have been made.
“Protesters have used ‘lock-ons’ and glued themselves to the road. Charing Cross Road has now been cleared and is back open to traffic. Work is ongoing to reopen the other roads as soon as possible.”