The department of health recorded a new total of 269,811 positive cases. The death toll also rose by 45 people on Sunday, making a total of 514 deaths from Covid-19 in the state this week.
California previously held the record for the highest single-day increase with 11,694 cases on Wednesday. New York recorded 11,571 on 15 April.
Florida has steadily moved to reopen much of its economy in the last two months with some of Disney World's theme parks opening on Saturday after months of closure.
Testing has doubled over the last month, going from about 25,000 tests per day to almost 50,000, but the percentage of people testing positive has risen even more dramatically. A month ago, fewer than 5% of tests came up positive on a daily average. Over the past week, the daily average exceeded 19%.
Doctors said that they anticipate the death toll will rise following the increased caseload. The mortality rate usually increases two to four weeks later as some of those infected get sicker and eventually die.
In the wake of the rising number of cases, health experts have expressed concerns over large gatherings in Florida including the Republican National Convention's nomination party for President Trump which is scheduled for next month in Jacksonville.
Governor Ron DeSantis has pledged to continue reopening the state by returning students to school next month.
"We know there are huge, huge costs for not providing the availability of in-person schooling," he said. "The risk of corona, fortunately, for students is incredibly low."
Additional reporting by AP