More than 1,000 police officers were on duty during the marches in central London.
A police statement said “the vast majority of people demonstrated peacefully” but there were multiple reports of criminal behaviour.
The Metropolitan Police said they arrested 29 people throughout the day, as well as one further person on Sunday morning, and have since charged six people.
Thousands marched through the streets throughout the day, escorted by police officers, some of whom were seen in riot gear.
Police commander Karen Findlay said: “While the vast majority of people demonstrated peacefully, there were various breakaway groups whose behaviour was completely unacceptable. Our response was quick and decisive.
“Our officers have been working tirelessly to deal with the 29 individuals arrested yesterday, with six of those now charged and set to appear in court. Four of those arrested yesterday evening have been referred to their local youth offending teams.
“One arrest has been made this morning for a public order offence after a man was allegedly heard making antisemitic comments in Parliament Square.
“We are continuing to review footage and will take positive action at every opportunity to arrest when we are alerted to crimes that are fuelled by hate.
“More than 1,300 officers were on duty on Saturday, intervening where necessary to prevent further disruption. Sadly we saw an increase in violence against them, most significantly when four officers were injured when fireworks were thrown in their direction.”
The six people charged include a 23-year-old and a 39-year-old for violation of section 14 of the Public Order Act.
A further three between the ages of 22 and 41 were arrested under section 12, while a sixth person was charged with “failing to comply with a direction given under section 35 of the Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014”.
All will appear in court later this month.
The police said they were also investigating a report that a pamphlet “purporting to support Hamas” was on sale during the demonstration on Saturday.
Hamas carried out an attack on Israeli soil on 7 October, killing more than 1,400 Israelis and taking hostage roughly 240 people, and is a proscribed terrorist organisation under British law.
A copy of the pamphlet is being reviewed by counterterrorism officers.
The arrests come as police said they have been in communication with organisers of the pro-Palestine marches regarding a planned demonstration during Armistice Day for the upcoming weekend.
A police statement said: “As in recent weeks, we have been speaking to the organisers of the pro-Palestine march to discuss yesterday’s demonstrations.
“We will continue to speak to them across this week as part of our ongoing planning for the weekend’s Remembrance events and will monitor and review all information available to us.
“We fully appreciate the national significance of Armistice Day. Thousands of officers will be deployed in an extensive security operation and we will use all powers and tactics at our disposal to ensure that anyone intent on disrupting it will not succeed.”