Donald Trump is the worst American president in history, a panel of political experts has decided.
The current incumbent of the White House came last in the survey of political scientists, while his predecessor, Barack Obama, was in eighth place.
Abraham Lincoln was in first place, followed by George Washington in second and Franklin D Roosevelt in third.
The survey was based on the views of 170 members of the American Political Science Association’s Presidents and Executive Politics section, and was published in the New York Times.
Mr Trump has taken the place of James Buchanan – who was in charge when the US plunged into civil war – at the bottom of the list, which was last published in 2014.
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Mr Obama moved from 18th to 8th in the past four years, while Bill Clinton slumped from 5th to 13th. Andrew Jackson fell from 9th place to 15th.
“Trump’s initial rating places him in an ignominious category, but dozens of presidents have had slow starts and have course corrected to improve their public esteem,” the study said.
“Beyond his reputation or ranking, Donald Trump’s very presidency may alter perceptions of presidential legacies as his unique approach to the office continues to surprise.”