London has once again failed to make it onto a top ten list of the world's most liveable cities, with the top slot going to Melbourne.
The capital missed out on the Economist Intelligence Unit's 2017 prestigious top ten ranking, which rates 140 cities according to factors affecting their stability, healthcare, education, culture and environment, and infrastructure.
For the seventh consecutive year Melbourne got the top spot with a score of 97.5 out of 100, and Vienna came in a close second with 97.4.
Three Canadian cities made it into the top five: Vancouver, Toronto and Calgary, with 97.3, 97.2 and 96.6 points respectively.
The top ten, which remained unchanged from last year, also included Adelaide, Perth, Auckland, Helsinki and Hamburg.
- Melbourne - 97.5 out of 100
- Vienna - 97.4
- Vancouver - 97.3
- Toronto - 97.2
- Calgary - 96.6
- Adelaide 96.6
- Perth - 95.9
- Auckland - 95.7
- Helsinki - 95.6
- Hamburg - 95.0
London came in at 53 in the rankings, unmoved from 2016.
The report explained: "Global business centres tend to be victims of their own success.
"The 'big city buzz' that they enjoy can overstretch infrastructure and cause higher crime rates.
"New York, London, Paris and Tokyo are all prestigious hubs with a wealth of recreational activities, but all suffer from higher levels of crime, congestion and public transport problems than are deemed comfortable," it said.
Mid-sized cities in wealthy countries tend to do well in the rankings, since lower population density means infrastructure that is under less strain, often making for better quality of life.
1. Damascus, Syria - 30.2
2. Lagos, Nigeria - 36.0
3. Tripoli, Libya - 36.6
4. Dhaka, Bangladesh - 38.7
5. Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea - 39.6
6. Algiers, Algeria, and Karachi, Pakistan - 40.9
8. Harare, Zimbabwe - 42.6
9. Douala, Cameroon - 44.0
10. Kiev, Ukraine - 47.8
Melbourne has a population density of 453 people per square kilometre, compared with London's more than 5,200.
The report said: "The question is how much wages, the cost of living and personal taste for a location can offset liveability factors.
"Although global centres fare less well in the ranking than mid-sized cities, for example, they still sit within the highest tier of liveability and should therefore be considered broadly comparable, especially when contrasted with the worst-scoring locations."