Dominic Cummings, who led the Vote Leave campaign during the EU referendum, is said to have goaded the Labour leader in the corridors of the Commons over a vote on whether to have an early general election.
Mr Johnson plans to hold a vote on an election following the Government’s Brexit defeat but Labour have signalled they will not vote for it until no-deal has been taken off the table.
But Mr Cummings is said to have shouted at Mr Corbyn: “Come on Jeremy, let’s do this election, don’t be scared.”
The tweet making the claims was quickly deleted but Labour MP Cat Smith appeared to confirm the incident, writing on Twitter: “As one of several shadow cabinet members stood right next to Jeremy (who was on the phone at the time) I just thought there was some loud bloke who stunk of booze yelling at us.”
Political journalist Tim Shipman later posted a message from a Labour source, who said that Mr Cummings was “drunk” when he shouted at Mr Corbyn.
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However, the source added that the confrontation was “apparently not aggressive but boisterous”.
In the six weeks since Mr Johnson became Prime Minister, Mr Cummings has clashed with several ministerial aides - and was instrumental in sacking Chancellor Sajid Javid's special adviser Sonia Khan.
He has also been credited for the Prime Minister's hardline approach to Brexit rebels.
Mr Cummings was once labelled a "career psychopath" by former prime minister David Cameron, according to widely reported remarks.
Former minister Alistair Burt, one of the rebels who has been thrown out of the Conservative Party in Parliament, said he had deep concerns about Mr Cummings's influence.
"He despises politicians, presumably despises the process of democratic politics, only sees it as a vehicle to use," Mr Burt said.
"I think that's an extremely concerning situation and the Prime Minister will need to look as to how to address that."