Speaking at a White House press briefing on Thursday, the US president boasted that his administration had rescued the US economy from "a horrible event" that started in China.
Mr Trump said the country "could've stopped" the pandemic, adding: "They know it and I know it."
It follows his sharp criticism of China throughout the global crisis after Covid-19 first broke out in the city of Wuhan late last year before spreading around the world.
On Thursday, the president said his administration is responsible for reducing the unemployment rate and reviving the stock market after the publication of the government's better-than-expected jobs report.
The report showed the country gained 4.8 million jobs and the unemployment rate dropped to 11.1 per cent last month when states began allowing businesses to reopen from strict lockdowns.
Mr Trump said: "These are not numbers that other presidents would have, and they won't have it.
"The only that would kill it is a bad president or a president that wants to raise taxes."
He went on to say that raising taxes would mean the value of 401k retirement plans and the stock market would "drop down to nothing".
"This is not just luck what's happening. This a lot of talent," he continued.
"All this incredible news is the result of historic actions my administration has taken working with our partners in congress to rescue the US economy from a horrible event that was formed, took place in China and came here.
"They could've stopped it. They could've stopped it. Nobody likes to write that, but they could've stopped it.
"They know it and I know it."
The government figures showed the US economy created jobs at a record clip in June as more restaurants and bars resumed operations.
Mr Trump also said: "Today's announcement proves that our economy is roaring back," before rattling off different sectors that saw job gains according to the monthly report.
"These are historic numbers."
But he took the victory lap as the coronavirus resurges in states with large economies such as California, Texas and Florida, prompting local governments to once again shutter bars and other businesses.
And a separate report on Thursday said that 1.43 million Americans filed for unemployment benefits during the final week of June.
Despite the swelling loads of new cases, Mr Trump said he expected to see good employment numbers in the coming months and that the third quarter gross domestic product report, due days before the November presidential election, would also be strong.
Mr Trump said Thursday's report "suggests that workers are confident about finding a new job."
He added that the White House and Congress continue to negotiate on another round of stimulus, frequently called "Phase 4," to help the economy withstand a pandemic now in its fourth month.