The 33-year-old missed the World Cup - which France won - with an Achilles injury, and had intended to retire from international duty after the tournament.
Koscielny told Canal+: "I think that I have given everything I can for France. My injury does not change my decision. For Les Bleus, it is finished."
On Deschamps, Koscielny said: "He called me once for my birthday in September. Otherwise, no (contact).
"Lots of people disappointed me. Not only the coach. It feels like a hit on the back of the head.
"When you are in good form, you have lots of friends. When you are injured... after a certain period of time, you are forgotten about."
Koscielny, who has 51 caps, was injured in Arsenal's Europa League semi-final loss to Atletico Madrid in May and is still recovering.
He announced his intention to retire from France duty in November 2017, confirming it on Sunday as he outlined the pain of missing the World Cup success.
"France's World Cup victory did me a lot more psychological damage than my injury did me," he added.
Additional reporting by the Press Association.