The sergeant, from Lancashire Police, was among seven officers sprayed with cleaning liquid while on the call in Ash Grove, Darwen in the early hours of Tuesday.
He suffered serious injuries to his eyes, throat and respiratory system and is being treated in Royal Blackburn Hospital. The six other officers have been discharged.
The alleged attacker, a man aged 46, escaped through a first-floor window but has since been arrested on suspicion of grievous bodily harm with intent.
Superintendent Andrea Barrow said: "This shocking incident from the early hours of the morning has left an officer with some significant and serious injuries.
— LancsPolice (@LancsPolice) April 16, 2019
"My thoughts are with him and his family and I wish him a speedy recovery and look forward to his return to work."
Lancashire Chief Constable Andy Rhodes said: "My thoughts are with this officer and all of those affected by this incident, which shows once again the dangers that officers face and how they put their lives on the line each and every day to protect people."
The officers forced entry to the house after they were called to a domestic dispute.
Chairwoman of Lancashire Police Federation Rachel Hanley said: "This was a sickening attack on a fellow colleague who was simply doing his job. Sadly this incident highlights the dangers our officers face every day when protecting our communities."