Zinc has many health benefits – it might come last in the alphabetical list, but it is one of the foremost minerals for active people. Crucial for energy metabolism, a healthy immune system, healing wounds and aiding injury recovery, zinc has many benefits for runners. These are all key to good running performance. Read on for all the information you need to know about this essential mineral, and how to make sure you’re getting enough.
Why is zinc important?
Known to be important for the immune system, zinc makes new cells and enzymes and processes carbohydrates, fat and protein in food. It also helps with wound healing. Runners though are particularly at risk of zinc deficiency, due to the fact that we sweat out small amounts of the mineral every time we run. It's especially important then, for runners to eat lots of foods rich in zinc to achieve the recommended daily intake from a whole-food diet. Where this is not possible, zinc supplements can be used to support your diet.
What are the benefits of zinc for runners?
Zinc is an essential nutrient, meaning your body can’t produce it, so you have to get it through your diet or supplementation. Zinc is vital for wound healing, protein synthesis, growth and development and immune function. It’s required for the maintenance of cell membrane activity, enzyme activity, cellular respiration and DNA reproduction. Studies show that 25% of the world’s population is affected by zinc deficiency, but this could be much higher among athletes. This is partly due to dietary choices, but you also lose zinc when you sweat. In athletes, deficiency can lead to fatigue, decreased endurance and risk of osteoporosis.
What are the signs of zinc deficiency?
There is no one clear sign, but being more prone to colds and infections and slow wound healing are two signs that could compromise your training. Symptoms of deficiency also include – but are not limited to – decreased appetite, altered sense of smell/taste, skin issues and fertility challenges. The best way to find out for sure is to work with a nutritionist or a medical professional to run some tests.
How much zinc do you need?
The current recommended daily intake of zinc in the UK is 7mg per day for women and 9.5mg for men. Ensure you are eating foods naturally rich in zinc or consider a supplement if you’re not able to include enough in your diet. A food-first approach to nutrition is always recommended before reaching for supplements, so add zinc-rich foods to your diet.
Which foods are high in zinc?
(Amounts per 100g)
Fish & Shellfish
Nuts & Seeds
Pumpkin seeds 10.3mg
Should you take a zinc supplement?
If you are deficient a supplement may be the best way to increase your levels. It is worth noting that there are several forms of zinc supplements, with some better absorbed than others. Studies show that the absorption of zinc citrate and gluconate was 60% or higher, whereas zinc oxide was just below 50%, with several subjects obtaining little or no absorption from this form.
It’s also important to note that taking high doses of zinc reduces the amount of copper the body can absorb, which can lead to anaemia and weakening of the bones. It is not advisable to take high levels of zinc for extended periods of time and the NHS advises people to not take more than 25mg of zinc supplements a day unless advised to by a doctor.
Best zinc supplements
Kim Pearson is a nutritionist with more than 10 years’ experience. kim-pearson.com
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